Transmission Grid Access and Pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A Comparative Study

Publication Type

Conference Paper

Date Published



The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications.

Conference Name

Power Delivery Europe

Year of Publication


Conference Location

Madrid, Spain
Research Areas