Optimal sizing and placement of energy storage systems and on-load tap changer transformers in distribution networks

Publication Type

Journal Article

Date Published

09/2019

Abstract

The large-scale deployment of distributed energy resources will produce reverse power flows, voltage, and congestion problems in the distribution networks. This paper proposes a novel optimization model to support distribution system operators planning future medium voltage distribution networks characterized by high penetration of behind-the-meter distributed energy resources. The optimization model defines the optimal mix, placement, and size of on-load tap charger transformers and energy storage devices with the objectives of mitigating network technical problems and minimizing both investment and operation costs. The proposed optimization model relaxes the non-convex formulation of the optimal power flow to a constrained second-order cone programming model and exactly linearizes the non-linear model of the on-load tap changer transformer via binary expansion scheme and big-M method. These two transformations reduce the computational burden of the optimization allowing it to be applicable to real-scale distribution grids, as demonstrated by the results. The numerical results also show that the joint optimization of energy storage devices and on-load tap changer transformers produces a more affordable and flexible planning strategy than the individual optimization of the technologies.

Journal

Applied Energy

Volume

250

Year of Publication

2019

Short Title

Applied Energy

Refereed Designation

Refereed

Pagination

1147 - 1157

ISSN

03062619
Organization